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Monkeypox Outbreak 2022

monkeypox

What is Monkeypox?

Monkeypox is a rare disease caused by infection with the monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus is a part of the family of viruses like smallpox. Both monkeypox and smallpox symptoms are similar. But smallpox symptoms are milder whereas monkeypox symptoms are rarely fatal. Monkeypox is not related to chicken pox. Monkeypox is a viral disease, it was confirmed in May 2022. 

Monkeypox has emerged as the most important orthopoxvirus for public health. It was appear in central rainforests and has been increasing in urban areas. 

Monkeypox ( The Virus)

Monkeypox virus is combined with double standard DNA virus. It belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family. There are two distinct genetic subfamilies of the monkeypox virus: the central African ( Congo Basin) subfamily and the west African subfamily. 

The Congo basin subfamily caused more severe diseases and assume to be more transmissible. 

Cameroon is the only country where both virus subfamilies have been found.

Origin of Monkeypox  

Human Monkeypox was first identified in humans in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in a 9 month of the old boy in a region where smallpox had been eliminated in 1968. 

Since then, most cases have been reported in the rural, rainforest region of the Congo Basin. 

It has increased and spread across central and west Africa. 

How has monkeypox spread?

  • Animals to Human Transmission

Monkeypox is a viral zoonosis ( It occurs when diseases are transferred from animals to people. It includes anthrax ( from sheep), rabies ( from rodents and other mammals), and West Nile virus ( from the bird). If symptoms are similar to those that smallpox patients although it is less severe. This virus is an animal-human transmission that can occur from direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids, or affected skin or animal bodies ( mouth, nose, lungs, or stomach) lesions of infected animals. 

  • Human to Human Transmission 

Human to human transmission can result from close contact with respiratory secretions, skin lesions of an infected person, or contaminated objects. Transmission of respiratory requires prolonged face-to-face contact. It includes health workers, household members, and other close contacts of active cases of high risk. The longest duration of transmission in a community had risen in a recent year from 6 to 9 years successive person-to-person infections. This may reflect the declining immunity in all communities due to the process of ending smallpox vaccination. 

Transmission can occur from the placenta from mother to fetus ( which can lead to congenital monkeypox) or during close contact during and after birth. While close physical contact is a well-known risk factor for transmission. 

What are the signs and symptoms of Monkeypox?

The initial period of monkeypox usually ranges from 6 to 13 days but it increases range from 5 to 21 days. 

The infection can be divided into two periods:

  • The conquering periods 

This period lasts between 0-5 days. It is characterized by fever, intense headache, swelling of lymph nodes back pain, muscle ache, and intense asthma. Feature of monkeypox compared to other diseases that initially appear similar to chickenpox, measles, and smallpox. 

  • The skin problem

The skin blow-up usually begins within 1-3 days of the appearance of fever. The rash is frequently concentrated on the face and extremities rather than on the body. It affects the face ( in 95% of cases) and palms of the hands and soles of the feet( in 75% of cases). In this disease, the rash evolves back to back from macules ( it is a flat, distinct, discolored area of skin less than 1 centimeter wide) to papules (A solid or cystic raised spot on the skin that is less than 1 centimeter wide), vesicles (it is a rash due to skin allergy or irritation), pustules ( It is a small, inflamed, pus-filled like sores on the skin surface) and crusts which dry up and fall off. The number of injuries varies from a few to several thousand. In severe cases, injury can come together until large sections of skin are shed off.

Monkeypox is a disease which symptoms lasting from 2 to 4 weeks. Severe cases occur more commonly among children and patients’ health conditions and the nature of complications. 

Vaccination against Monkeypox

Vaccination of smallpox was demonstrated through several observational studies. It is about 85% effective in preventing monkeypox. 

Two vaccines may be used for the prevention of Monkeypox virus infection:

Jones ( known as Imvamune or Imvanex). It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of the Monkeypox virus.

Acam2000 was approved by FDA for use against smallpox and is available for monkeypox.

In the U.S. currently, there is a limited supply of Jones. It is expected that the supply of this medicine will become more in the coming weeks and months.

There is a larger supply of Acam2000. This vaccine should not be useful for those people who have any kind of health conditions such as a weakened immune system, skin conditions like eczema or other shed-off skin conditions, or pregnancy.

There is no proper data available on the effectiveness of these vaccines at the current time.

After 1st dose of Jynnoes and Acam2000, the immune response takes 14 days after the second dose of Jynnoes and 4 weeks after the Acam2000 dose for maximal development.

People who get vaccinated should continue to take steps to protect themselves from infection by avoiding close skin-to-skin contact including intimate contact, with someone who has been infected with monkeypox.

 Present cases of Monkeypox in India and the World

Globally, more than 16,000 monkeypox cases have been detected by the World Health Organisation (WHO). It declares the Moneypox outbreak as a global health emergency.

In India, Delhi reports the first case of monkeypox after a 31-year-old man from west Delhi.

Previously, three cases of monkeypox have been reported in Kerela. With these new cases in Delhi, India has now a total of four confirmed cases of monkeypox.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) confirmed the global outbreak of monkeypox has grown to more than 6,000 cases. 80% cases in European countries. Infections have been detected in 58 countries. Currently, our world data lists 7,075 confirmed cases worldwide.

Conclusion

Monkeypox is an outbreak in 2022. It is a viral disease caused by the infection with the monkeypox virus. This virus is a part of the same family of the virus as smallpox. To protect yourself from monkeypox you should avoid skin contact with infected people. Do not share eating utensils or cups with a person with a monkeypox. Do not kiss, hug, have sex, and cuddle with someone who has any symptoms of monkeypox.

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