Uremia: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment



Uremia happens when your kidneys stop filtering toxins out through your urine. Instead of being excreted through your urine by your kidneys, toxins end up in your bloodstream. Creatine and urea are the names given to these toxins.

Uremia is a serious condition that can be fatal if left untreated. A major symptom of renal failure is urination. Uremia is also a sign of chronic kidney disease in its final stages. Uremia can lead to serious health issues like fluid buildup, electrolytes, hormones, and metabolic issues.


It’s possible that you won’t have any symptoms when you first get chronic kidney disease. However, your kidneys are already severely damaged when uremia begins.

You might experience some of the following symptoms if you have uremia:

  • A feeling of extreme exhaustion.
  • Cramping in your legs.
  • Lack of or no appetite.
  • Headache.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting, and
  • Difficulty concentrating.


Uremia is most prevalent in CKD patients. CKD may be the result of kidney disease or a more widespread condition. The most common causes of CKD in the United States are:

  • Mellitus diabetes.
  • Elevated blood pressure.
  • Damage to the kidney filters (referred to as glomerulonephritis).
  • Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) (is characterized by pimples, or liquid-filled sacs, in or around the kidneys).


Your kidneys remove waste and fluids from your body through urine in a healthy condition. Kidneys are responsible for maintaining normal levels of acids, electrolytes, and chemicals like Vitamin D and erythropoietin (EPO). Multiple toxins can accumulate in the blood due to the poor functioning of damaged kidneys. When kidney function is less than 15% (15 ml/min) of normal, most people get sick, and when it is less than 10% (10 ml/min), they need to start dialysis. Chemicals that are elevated in uremia but are not necessarily the cause are monitored in laboratory studies:

  • Creatinine is a waste product made from muscle and protein in food.
  • Urea is a waste product made when protein is broken down in the liver.
  • Utilization of a formula (eGFR – ml/min) to estimate overall kidney function.
  • Based on National Kidney Foundation eGFR data, CKD stages range from 1 to 5, with dialysis typically beginning at Stage 5.


Your medical professional:

  1. Assess your side effects.
  2. Carry out a physical exam.
  3. Examine your health history, paying particular attention to your kidney health and family history.
  4. Examine the laboratory tests mentioned previously. A uremia diagnosis can be confirmed by your doctor with the help of creatinine and BUN blood tests. These tests look for a lot of waste products in your blood. Additionally, they were used to estimate your eGFR (glomerular filtration rate). This rate measures how well your kidneys work.

A kidney ultrasound looks for scarring and examines your kidneys’ shape and size. An ultrasound can also detect kidney blockages, for example, kidney stones, or wounds. In some cases, additional tests may be necessary.


The most common treatment for uremia is dialysis, a blood cleansing procedure. Dialysis comes in two varieties. A machine filters blood outside the body during hemodialysis. In peritoneal dialysis, the blood is filtered through your belly’s lining and a special fluid.

You might need a kidney transplant if you have uremia as a result of end-stage renal (kidney) failure. The failing kidney is replaced with a donor kidney from a living or deceased donor during a transplant.

For anemia, your doctor may recommend iron supplements, EPO replacement, calcium and vitamin D supplements, and phosphorus binders taken with food to prevent hyperparathyroidism-related bone loss. Controlling blood pressure is necessary, and any potential for heart disease must be addressed. Manage other underlying medical issues as well.


To keep toxins under control, people with end-stage kidney disease should undergo dialysis on a regular basis. Assuming you have persistent kidney disease, you might have the option to forestall or postpone infection movement by:

  • Manage diabetes, high blood pressure, or other health issues.
  • Take your medications as directed.
  • Avoid medications that might make your kidneys hurt even more.
  • Eating well is healthy for your heart.
  • Exercising.
  • Preserving a healthy body weight.
  • Giving up smoking.

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Is there anything I shouldn’t eat?

Consult your doctor or a dietitian before changing your eating routine or taking supplements. Your healthcare provider can help you make safe decisions about which medications to modify or avoid. Most of the time, a healthy diet low in sodium and potassium is used. Protein, potassium, phosphate, and sodium should all be avoided by uremia patients.

What happens when your kidneys stop working?

Waste accumulates in the blood as a person’s kidneys fail to function properly. A condition known as uremia is characterized by elevated levels of creatinine in the blood.

What stage of kidney disease is renal failure?

Stage 5 of CKD is renal failure. This is known as ESKD by healthcare professionals.

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